GPS

Global Psychotrauma Screen

The GPS in short

  • The Global Psychotrauma Screen (GPS) is a screening instrument designed to identify reactions to a severe stressor or potentially traumatic event (17 yes/no questions).

  • It also assesses risk or protective factors known to influence the course of symptoms (5 yes/no questions).

  • The GPS begins with questions about the event or experience.

  • It can be used in different settings such as in primary care, after disaster, or in clinical practice.

  • The app provides direct feedback on the scores.

  • Scoring positive above the cutoff or on certain domains (e.g. of PTSD, anxiety or depression - see below) may require more detailed follow assessments, e.g. with structured interviews for specific disorders.

 
 

Take the GPS

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Background and aims

The GPS was developed by an international group of experts representing traumatic stress societies worldwide, called the Global Collaboration on Traumatic Stress (Olff et al., 2020; Schnyder et al., 2017). The aim was to address the need for a brief instrument that would tap the potential wide range of acute or long term consequences of  stressful or potentially trauma events, broader than PTSD symptoms alone (see domains below). It can be applied to tap the consequences of all types of events including more recent ones. 

The GPS consists of 17 symptom items, and 5 risk/protective factor questions, each to be answered in a yes/no format.

Domains

​The symptom domains covered in the GPS are:

  • PTSD

  • Disturbances in Self-Organization (DSO) as part of Complex PTSD

  • Anxiety

  • Depression

  • Sleep problems

  • Self-harm

  • Dissociation

  • Other physical, emotional or social problems

  • Substance abuse

 

Risk and protective factors assessed are:

  • Other stressful events

  • Childhood trauma

  • History of mental illness

  • Social support

  • Psychological

The GPS app

The GPS app was developed to provide easy access to the GPS in several languages. The GPS web app version, in addition to the 22 yes/no items, also asks about the type of event and includes one item on functioning. It also provides immediate feedback on the outcomes.

Not all languages are as yet available through the app (those not underlined below), a pdf can be obtained through the form on this page.

 

Languages

The GPS is currently available in 24 languages:  

The English version has been translated into the languages listed above following the translation and cultural adaptation process by Sousa and Rojjanasrirat (2011).

Norm scores and psychometric properties

Ongoing research suggests good internal reliability as well as concurrent validity with instruments measuring a range of psychotrauma related symptom domains (Olff et al., 2020; Oe et al., 2020; Rossi et al., 2020; Rossi et al., 2021; Frewen et al., 2021). 

Cross cultural data are being collected here.

Scoring positive above the cutoff or on certain domains (e.g. of PTSD, anxiety or depression may require more detailed follow assessments, e.g. with structured interviews for specific disorders.

Using GPS

 

The GPS is freely available and accessible through the web-app or by requesting the pdf by filling out the form below.

Researchers or clinicians who wish to further translate the GPS in another language are also requested to fill out the form below.

 

GPS for children and teenagers (GPS-c and GPS-T)

 

For the GPS versions for children and teenagers please go here (https://www.global-psychotrauma.net/gps-child-teen).

 

Please register here to receive scoring information and further updates

Thanks for submitting!

 

GPS

GPS project group

PI: Miranda Olff  (email: m.olff-AT- amsterdamumc.nl)

Dean Ajdukovic, Anne Bakker, Doug Brewer, Marylene Cloitre, Grete Dyb, Paul Frewen, Emma Grace, Ali Haghi, Juli Lanza, Brigitte Lueger Schuester, Gladys Mwiti, Misari Oe, Janaina Pinto, Indira Primasari, Rita Rosner, Carolina Salgado, Ingo Schaefer,  Yahya Salimi, Julia Schellong, Ueli Schnyder, Jun Shigemura, Kitty Wu.

References

Olff, M., Primasari, I, Qing, Y, Coimbra B.M., Hovnanyan, A, Grace E,  Williamson, R.E., Hoeboer, C.M. & Global Collaboration on Traumatic Stress (GC-TS) (2021/in press). Mental Health Responses to COVID-19 around the World. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 12(1),  https://doi.org/10.1080/

Frewen, P., McPhail, I, Schnyder, U., Oe, M.,  Olff, M. (2021/in press). Global Psychotrauma Screen (GPS): Psychometric Properties in two Internet-based StudiesEuropean Journal of Psychotraumatology, 12(1),  https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2021.1881725

Rossi, R., Socci, V., Talevi, D. Cinzia Niolu, C., Pacitti, F., Di Marco, A., Rossi, A., Siracusano, A., Di Lorenzo, G., Olff, M. (2021). Trauma-spectrum symptoms among the Italian general population in the time of the COVID-19 outbreakEuropean Journal of Psychotraumatology, 12(1), 

https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2020.1855888

Oe, M., Kobayashi, Y., Ishida, T., Chiba, H., Matsuoka, M., Kakuma, T., Frewen, P. & Olff, M. (2020). Screening for psychotrauma related symptoms: Japanese translation and pilot testing of the Global Psychotrauma Screen.  European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), doi 10.1080/20008198.2020.1810893.

Olff, M., Bakker, A.,  Frewen, P., Aakvaag, H., Ajdukovic, D., Brewer, D., Elmore Borbon, D.L., Cloitre, M., Hyland, P., Kassam-Adams, N., Knefel, M., Lanza, J.A., Lueger-Schuster, B., Nickerson, A., Oe, M., Pfaltz, M.C., Salgado, C., Seedat, S., Wagner, A.,  Schnyder, U. & Global Collaboration on Traumatic Stress (GC-TS) (2020). 

Screening for consequences of trauma – an update on the global collaboration on traumatic stress. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1752504  https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2020.1752504

Rossi, R., Socci, V., Pacitti, F., Di Lorenzo, G., Di Marco, A.,  Siracusano, A., Rossi, Alessandro (2020). Mental Health Outcomes Among Frontline and Second-Line Health CareWorkers During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic in ItalyJAMA Network Open. 2020;3(5):e2010185. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.10185 

Schnyder, U., Schafer, I., Aakvaag, H. F., Ajdukovic, D., Bakker, A., Bisson, J.I., Brewer, D., Cloitre, M., Dyb, G.A., Frewen, P., Lanza, J., Le Brocque, R., Lueger-Schuster, B., Mwiti, G.K., Oe, M., Rosner, R., Schellong, J., Shigemura, J., Wu, K., & Olff, M. (2017). The global collaboration on traumatic stress. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8(1), https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2017.1403257

Sousa, V.D. &  Rojjanasrirat, W. (2011). Translation, adaptation and validation of instruments or scales for use in cross-cultural health care research: a clear and user-friendly guideline. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 , 268–274